Friday, November 19, 2010

Notes on Software Design, Chapter 12: Entanglement

Mechanical devices require maintenance, some more than others. Maintenance is intended to keep them working, because mechanical parts tend to wear out. Maintenance is required so that they can still work "as new", that is, do the same thing they were built to do.

Software programs require maintenance, some more than others. Maintenance is intended to keep them useful, because software parts don't wear out, but they get obsolete. They solve yesterday's problems, not today's problems. Or perhaps they didn't even solve yesterday's problems right (bugs). Maintenance is required so that software can so something different from what it was built to do.

Looking from a slightly different perspective, software is encoded knowledge, and the value of knowledge is constantly decaying (see the concept of half-life of knowledge). Maintenance is required to restore value. Energy (human work) must be supplied to keep encoded knowledge current, that is, valuable.

Either way, software developers spend a large amount of their time changing stuff.

Ideally, changes would be purely additional. We would write a new software entity (e.g. a class) inside a new artifact (a source file). We would transform that artifact into something executable (if needed; interpreted languages don't need this step). We would deploy just the new executable artifact. The system would automagically discover the new artifact and start using it.

Although it's possible to create systems like that (I've done it many times through plug-in architectures), programs are not written this way from the ground up. Plug-ins, assuming they exist at all, usually appears at a relatively coarse granularity. Below that level, maintenance is rarely additional. Besides, additional maintenance is only possible when the change request is aligned with the underlying architecture.

So, the truth is, most often we can't simply add new knowledge to the system. We also have to change and remove existing parts. A single change request then results in a wave of changes, propagating through the system. Depending on some factors (that I'll discuss later on) the wave could be dampened pretty soon, or even amplified. In that case, we'll have to change more and more parts as the wave propagates through the system. If we change a modularized decisions, the change wave is dampened at module boundary.

The nature of change
Consider a system with two hardware nodes. The nodes are based on completely different hardware architectures: for instance, node 1 is a regular PC, node 2 is a DSP+ASIC embedded device. They are connected through standard transport protocols. Above transport, they don't share a single line of code, because they don't calculate the same function.
Yet, if you change the code deployed in node 1, you have to change some (different) code in node 2 as well, or the system won't work. Yikes! Aren't those two systems loosely coupled according to the traditional coupling theory? Sure. But still, changes need to happen on both sides.

The example above may seem paradoxical, or academic, but is not. Most likely, you own one of those devices. It's a decoder, like those for DVB-T, sat TV, or inside DivX players. The decoder is not computing the same function as the encoder (in a sense, it's computing the inverse function). The decoder may not share any code at all with the encoder. Still, they must be constantly aligned, or you won't see squat.

This is the real nature of change in software: you change something, and a number of things must be changed at the same time to preserve correctness. In a sense, change is affecting very distant, even physically disconnected components, and must be simultaneous: change X, and Y, Z, K must all change, at once.

At this point, we may think that all the physical analogies are breaking down, because this is not how the physical world behaves. Except it does :-). You just have to look at the right scale, and move from the familiar Newtonian physics to the slightly less comfortable (for me, at least) quantum physics.

Quantum Entanglement
Note: if you really, really, really hate physics, you can skip this part. Still, if you never came across the concept of Quantum Entanglement, you may find it interesting. Well, when I first heard of it, I thought it was amazing (though I didn't see the connection with software back then).

You probably know about the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Briefly, it says that when you go down to particles like photons, you can't measure (e.g.) both position and wavelength at arbitrarily high precision. It's not a problem of measurement techniques. It's the nature of things.

Turns out, however, that we can create entangled particles. For instance, we can create two particles A and B that share the same exact wavelenght. Therefore, we can try to circumvent the uncertainty principle by measuring particle A wavelength, and particle B position. Now, and this is absolutely mind-blowing :-), it does not work. As soon as you try to measure particle B position, particle A reacts, by collapsing its wave function, immediately, even at an arbitrary distance. You cannot observe A without changing B.

Quoting wikipedia: Quantum entanglement [..] is a property of certain states of a quantum system containing two or more distinct objects, in which the information describing the objects is inextricably linked such that performing a measurement on one immediately alters properties of the other, even when separated at arbitrary distances.

Replace measurement with change, and that's exactly like software :-).

Software Entanglement
The parallel between entangled particles and entangled information is relatively simple. What is even more interesting, it works both in the artifact world and in the run-time world, at every level in the corresponding hierarchy (the run-time/artifact distinction is becoming more and more central, and was sorely missing in most previous works on related concepts). On the other hand, the concept of entanglement has far-reaching consequences, and is also a trampoline to new concepts. This post, therefore, is more like a broad introduction than an in-depth scrutiny.

Borrowing from quantum physics, we can define software entanglement as follows:

Two clusters of information are entangled when performing a change on one immediately requires a change on the other.

A simple example in the artifact space is renaming a function. All (by-name) callers must be changed, immediately. Callers are entangled with the callee. A simple example in the run-time space is caching. Caching requires cache coherence mechanisms, exactly because of entanglement.

Note 1: I said "by name", because callers by reference are not affected. This is strongly related with the idea of dampening, and we'll explore it in a future post.

Note 2: for a while, I've been leaning on using "tangling" instead of "entanglement", as it is a more familiar word. So, in some previous posts, you'll find mentions to "tangling". In the end, I decided to go with "entanglement" because "tangling" has already being used (with different meaning) in AOP literature, and also because entanglement, although perhaps less familiar, is simply more precise.

Not your granpa coupling
Coupling is a time-honored concept, born in the 70s and survived to this day. Originally, coupling was mostly concerned with data. Content coupling took place when a module was tweaking another module's internal data; common coupling was about sharing a global variable; etc. Some forms of coupling were considered stronger than others.

Most of those concepts can be applied to OO software as well, although most metrics for OO coupling takes a more simplified approach and mostly consider dependencies as coupling. Still, some forms of dependency are considered stronger than others. Inheritance is considered stronger than composition; dependency on a concrete class is considered stronger than dependency on an interface; etc. Therefore, the mere presence of an interface between two classes is assumed to reduce coupling. If class A doesn't talk to class B, and doesn't even know about class B existence, they are considered uncoupled.

Of course, lack of coupling in the traditional sense does not imply lack of entanglement. This is why so many attempts to decouple systems through layers are so ineffective. As I said many times, all those layers in business systems can't usually dampen the wave of changes coming from the (seemingly) innocent need to add a field to a database table. In every layer, we usually have some information node that is tangled with that table. Data access; business logic; user interface; they all need to change, instantly, so that this new field will be put to use. That's entanglement, and it's not going away by layering.

So, isn't entanglement just coupling? No, not really. Many systems that would be defined as "loosely coupled" are indeed "heavily entangled" (the example above with the encoder/decoder is the poster child of a loosely coupled / heavily entangled system).

To give honor to whom honor is due, the closest thing I've encountered in my research is the concept of connascence, introduced by Meilir Page-Jones in a little known book from mid-90s ("What Every Programmer Should Know About Object-Oriented Design"). Curiously enough, I came to know connascence after I conceived entanglement, while looking for previous literature on the subject. Stille, there are some notable differences between connascence and entanglement, that I'll explore in the forthcoming posts (for instance, Page-Jones didn't consider the RT/artifact separation).

I'll explore the implications of entanglement in future posts, where I'll also try to delve deeper into the nature of change, as we can't fully understand entanglement until we fully understand change.

Right now, I'd like to highlight something obvious :-), that is, having distant yet entangled information is dangerous, and having too much tangled information is either maintenance hell or performance hell (artifact vs run-time).

Indeed, it's easy to classify entanglement as an attractive force. This is an oversimplification, however, so I'll leave the real meat for my next posts.

Beyond Good and Evil
There is a strong urge inside the human being to classify things as "good" and "bad". Within each category, we further classify things by degree of goodness or badness. Unsurprisingly, we bring this habit into computer science.

Coupling has long been sub-classified by "strength", with content coupling being stronger than stamp coupling, in turn stronger than data coupling. Even connascence has been classified by strength, with e.g. connascence of position being stronger than connascence of name. The general consensus is that we should aim for the weakest possible form of coupling / connascence.

I'm going to say something huge now, so be prepared :-). This is all wrong. When two information nodes are entangled, changes will propagate, period. The safest entanglement is the one with the minimum likelihood of occurrence. Of course, that must be weighted with the number of entangled nodes. It's very similar to risk exposure (believe or not, I couldn't find a decent link explaining the concept to the uninitiated :-).

There is more. We can dampen the effects of some forms of entanglement. That requires human work, that is, energy. It's usually upfront work (sorry guys :-), although that's not always the case. Therefore, even if I came up with some classification of good/bad entanglement, it would be rather pointless, because dampening is totally context-dependent.

I'll explore dampening in future posts, of course. But just to avoid excessive vagueness, think about polymorphism: it's about dampening the effect of a change (which change? Which other similar change is not dampened at all by polymorphism?). Think about the concept of reference. It's about dampening the effect of a change (in the run-time space). Etc.

Your system is not really aligned with the underlying forcefield unless you have strategies in place to dampen the effect of entanglement with high risk exposure. Conversely, a deep understanding of entanglement may highlight different solutions, where entangled information is kept together, as to minimize the cost of change. Examples will follow.

What's next?
Before we can talk about dampening, we really need to understand the nature of change better. As we do that, we'll learn more about entanglement as well, and how many programming and design concepts have been devised to deal with entanglement, while some concepts are still missing (but theoretically possible). It's a rather long trip, but the sky is clear :-).

Monday, November 01, 2010

Design, Structure, and Decisions

Joe is a junior programmer in the IT department of SomeLargeCompany, Inc. His company is not in the business of software; however, they have a lot of custom programs that are constantly developed, adapted, tweaked to follow the ever-changing landscape of products, sales, regulations, etc.

Joe is largely self-taught. He doesn't know much about software engineering, but in the end, he gets things done.

Right now, Joe is writing some code dealing with money. He's using lots of floating points variables ("double" in his language) to store money.
Joe does not know about the inherent rounding error of decimal-to-binary conversion (and back). He doesn't know about a decimal floating point type. He doesn't know, and didn't look for, a Money class that could also store the currency. He's just coding his way out of his problem. He didn't choose to use a double after pondering on the alternatives, or based on previous experiences. It wasn't a choice at all. He just didn't know any better.

Joe is actually in the middle of a rather long function, doing some database lookup, some calculations, some reporting. He learned, the hard way, that is better to check for errors. He will handle any error in the simplest possible way: by opening an error box in the middle of the function, where the error can be diagnosed.
Joe doesn't know about design principles. He doesn't know that it's usually better to keep business logic decoupled from the user interface. He didn't choose to put some GUI code inside the business logic after thinking about alternatives. He just did it. He didn't know any better.

That function is so long because at some point Joe realized he had to handle several different cases. He did that the usual way: with a switch/case. He never really "got" objects and couldn't even think about using polymorphism there. He uses classes, somehow, but not at that fine granularity. So, again, he didn't choose the switch/case over something else. He just didn't know any better.

Structure vs. Design
Joe is a good guy, really; and his code kinda works, most of the times. But this story is not about Joe. It's about code, structure, design, and decisions: because in the end, Joe will write some serious amount of code. Code has an inner structure: in this case, structure will reveal heavy reliance on primitive types (double), will reveal that business logic is tangled with database access and with user interface concerns, and will also reveal that no extension mechanism is in place. Code never lies.

Now, the modern (dare I say post-agile?) way of thinking is that in the end, the code is the design. That is, if you want to know the real design, you have to look at the code. You'll find a lot of literature (not to mention blog posts), some from well-known authors, promoting or just holding on this idea. At some point, just about everybody gave in and accepted this as a truism. As you might guess, I didn't.

A process or a thing?
Software development is a young discipline, yet extremely dynamic. It's hardly surprising to find confusion and disagreement even on the fundamentals. That includes, of course, having several hundred different definitions of "software design". For some, it's a process. For some, it's the result of that process. We then have endless debates, like "is coding a form of design?", which again are often confusing "design" with "modeling" and wasting lot of ink about nothing.

It doesn't have to be that hard. Let's start with the high-level question: design as a process vs. design as a thing. It's a rather simple choice; we may even benefit from the digital version of some old, dusty etymology dictionary, where design is commonly defined as "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint". Design is an act, and therefore a process. Please don't read "process" as "a series of mechanical acts"; just consider a process as something you carry out over a period of time.
More exactly, design is decision process. We choose between alternatives, balancing forces as we go. We make decisions through a reflective conversation with our materials, taking place all the time, from early requirements to bug fixing.

Design, however, is not the code. It is not the diagram. It is not an artifact. If we really want to transform design into "a thing", then it is best defined as the set of choices that brought us to the artifact; assuming, of course, that we actually made any choice at all.

Side note: not every decision is a design decision. Design is concerned with form, that is, with the shape of our material. Including or excluding a feature from a product, for instance, is not a design decision; it is best characterized as a marketing decision. In practice, a product often results from the interplay of marketing and design decisions.

Design as a decision process
Back in 2006 I suggested that we shouldn't use terms like "accidental architecture" because architecture (which is just another form of design) is always intentional: it's a set of choices we make. I suggested using "structure" instead.

Artifacts always have structure. Every artifact we use in software development is made of things (depending on our paradigm) that are somehow related (again, depending on our paradigm). That's the structure. Look at a diagram, and you'll see structure. Look at the code, and you'll see structure. Look at the executable, and if you can make sense of it, you'll see structure.

There is a fundamental difference between structure and design. Structure can be the result of an intentional process (design) or the result of an accidental process (coding your way out of something). Design is always intentional; if it's not intentional, it's not design.

So, if you want to know the real structure (and yes, usually you want to), you have to look at the code. You may also look at diagrams (I would). But diagrams will show an abstract, idealized, and yes, possibly obsolete high-level structure. The "real" structure is the code structure. It would be naive, however, to confuse structure with design.

Consider Joe's code. We can see some structure in that code. That structure, however, is not design. There is no rationale behind that structure, except "I didn't know any better". Joe did not design his code. He just wrote it. He didn't make a single decision. He did the only thing he knew. That's not design. Sorry.

What is design, again?
Once we agree that design is a decision process, we can see different design approaches for what they are: different ways to come to a decision.

The upfront school claims that some decisions can be made before writing code, perhaps by drawing models. Taken to the extreme (which is always naive), it would require that we make all design decisions before writing code.

The emergent design school claims that system-level decisions should emerge from the self-organization of lower-level decision, mostly taken by writing code according to "good practices" like Don't Repeat Yourself. Taken to the extreme (which is always naive), it would require that we make no system-level choices at all, and wait for code to jell into a well-formed structure.

The pattern school claims that we can recognize forces and adopt pre-packaged decisions, embodied into a pattern.

Systematic techniques like my good old SysOOD claim that we can systematically recognize some problems and choose from a set of sound transformations.

The MDA school claims that we can organize decisions along two axes: decisions that we store in models, and decisions that we store in transformation tools. This would be a long story in itself.


If you have a favorite design approach (say, TDD or Design by Contract) you may consider spending a little time pondering on which kind of decisions are better supported by that approach.

There is no choice
If there is no choice to be made, or if you can't see that there is a choice to be made, you are not doing design. This is so big that I'll have to say it again. If there is no choice to be made, you're not doing design. You might be drawing some fancy diagram, but it's not design anyway. I can draw a detailed diagram of the I/O virtualization layer for an embedded device in 10 minutes. I've done that many times. I'm not choosing anything, just replicating something. That's not design. It's "just" modeling.

On the other end of the spectrum, I've been writing quite a bit of code lately, based on various Facebook APIs (the graph api, the javascript sdk, fbml, whatever). Like many other APIs, things never really work as documented (or lacking documentation, as it would be reasonable to assume). Here and there, in my code, I had to do things not the way I wanted, but the only way that actually worked. In light of the above, I can honestly say that I did not design those portions. I often couldn't make a choice, although I wish I could (in this sense, it would be terrible to have someone look at that code and think that it represents "my design").

Of course, that's not my first web application ever. Over time, I've written many, and I've created a lot of small reusable components. I know them well, I trust them, I have the source code, and I'm familiar with it. When I see a problem that I can easily solve by reusing one, I tend to do it on the spot.
Now, this is a borderline case, as I'm not really making a choice. The component is just there, crying to be reused. I'm just going with the flow. It's perhaps 5% design (recognizing the component as a good candidate and choosing to use it) and 95% habits.
Reusing standard library classes is probably 1% design, 99% habits. We used to write our own containers and even string classes back in the early 90s. Today, I must have a very compelling case to do so (the 1% design is recognizing I don't have a very compelling case :-).

Trying to generalize a little, we may like to think that we're making decisions all the time, but this is far from true. In many cases, we don't, because:

- Like Joe, we don't know any better.

- Like above, we're working with an unstable, poorly documented, rather crappy third party library. It's basically trial and error, with a little clean-up in the end (so, let's say 2-5% design). The library is making the choices (95-98%).

- We've done this several times in the past, and we're just repeating ourselves again. It's a habit. Perhaps we should question our habit, but we don't. Perhaps we should see that we're writing the same code over and over and design a reusable component, but we don't.

- We (the company, the team, the community) have a standard way to do this.

- The library/framework/language we're using has already made that choice.

- We took a high-level decision before, and the rest follows naturally.

After pondering on this for a while, I came to the conclusion that in the past I've been mixing two aspects of the decision making process. The need to make a decision, and the freedom to make a decision. You can plot this as a quadrant, if you want.

Sometimes, there is just no need to make a choice. This can actually be a good thing. It could be a highly productive state where you just have to write down your logic. There might be short "design moments" where we make low-scale decisions (the fractal nature of software makes the decision process fractal as well), but overall we just go with the flow. As usual, the issue is context. Not making a decision because there is a natural solution is quite different from not making a decision because we can't even see the possibilities, or the need.

Sometimes, we need to make a choice. At that point, we need the freedom to do so. If the code is so brittle that you have to find your way by trial and error, if company standards are overly restrictive, if our language is too limited, if the architecture is too constraining, we lack freedom. That leads to sub-optimal local and global choices. Here is the challenge of architecture: make the right decisions, so that you offer a reasonable structure for growth, yet leave enough freedom for local choices, and a feedback loop from local to global.

Design, as a decision process, is better experienced in bursts. You make a set of choices, and then you let the natural consequences unravel themselves. You may unravel some consequences using models, if you like it. In some cases, it's very effective. Some consequences are best unraveled by writing code. Be smart, not religious.

Be aware when you have to make too many choices, too often. It's fine in the beginning, as the decision space is huge. But as you progress, the need for new choices should naturally decrease, in frequency and in scale. Think of coding as a conversation with your artifacts. Just like any conversation, it can turn into an argument and then into a fight. Your code just does not want to be shaped that way; it was never meant to be shaped that way; it is resisting your change. You change something here, just to find out that you really need to patch that other part, and so on. You have to think, think, think. Lot of effort, little progress. On a deeper level, you're fighting the forcefield. The design is not aligned with the forcefield. There is friction (in the decision space!) and friction energy is wasted energy.

Finally, if you draw a quadrant, you'll see an interesting spot where there is no need to make choices, but there is freedom to. I like that spot: it's where I know how to do it, because I've done it before, but it's not the only way to do it, and I might try something new this time. Some people don't take the opportunity, and always take the safe, known way. Depending on the project, I don't mind taking a risk if I see the potential for a sizeable reward.

What about good design?
Back in 1972, David Parnas wrote one of the most influential papers ever ("On the criteria to be used in decomposing systems into modules"), where two alternative modular structures were proposed for the same system. The first used the familiar functional decomposition. The second was based on the concept of Information Hiding. Later on, that paper has been heavily quoted in the OOP literature as an inspiration for encapsulation. Indeed, Parnas suggests hiding data structure details inside modules, but that was just an example. The real message was that modules should encapsulate decisions: every module [...] is characterized by its knowledge of a design decision which it hides from all others"; again: "we propose instead that one begins with a list of difficult design decisions or design decisions which are likely to change. Each module is then designed to hide such a decision from the others".

Think about it, and it makes lot of sense. Design is a decision-making process. Decisions may turn out to be wrong, or may become obsolete as business and technology change. Some decisions are also meant to be temporary from the very beginning. In all cases, we would like to modularize those decisions, so that we can change them without global impact.

Unfortunately, this is not how most people design software. Most decisions are not modularized at all. Worse yet, most decisions are not made explicit, either in code, diagrams, sketchy notes, whatever. And worst of all, a lot of code is written without taking any decision at all, just like good ol' Joe does. "Seat of your pants" is not a design strategy.

Note: given current programming technology and tools, modularizing decisions is easier said than done. For instance, I decided to use AJAX in the web application I mentioned above. I would love to modularize that decision away. But it would be damn hard. Too hard to be worth it. So I let this decision influence the overall structure. There are many cases like this. Quite often, during a joint design session, I would say something like - guys, here we're making a pervasive, non-linear choice. This is like a magic door. Once we choose, we enter into a different world.

So, we're doing a good design job when we make modular decisions, that we can change later without global impact. I think this may shed a different light on delaying decisions (design decisions, not (e.g.) marketing decision).

The folklore is that if you wait, you can make a more informed decision. Of course, if you wait too much, you reach a state of paralysis where you can't progress anymore, and you may also miss some opportunity along the road.

From the decision modularization perspective, things are slightly more precise:

- If, given our current knowledge, the decision can't be modularized, it's better to wait, because we might find a way to make it modular, or get a better picture of our problem, and hopefully make the "right" nonmodular decision. Note that when a decision is not modular, undoing/changing it will incur a substantial cost: the mass to move in the decision space will be high, and that's our measure of work.

- If the decision can be modularized, but you think that given more knowledge you could modularize it better, it makes sense to wait. Otherwise, there is little or no value in waiting. Note that postponing a decision and postponing implementation are two different things (unless your only way to make a decision is by writing code). There is a strong connection with my concept of invariant decision, but I'll leave it up to you to dig around.

As an aside, I'm under the impression that most people expect to just "learn the right answer" by waiting. And by "right" they mean that there is no need to modularize the decision anymore (because it's right :-). This is quite simplistic, as there is no guarantee whatsoever that a delayed decision will be particularly stable.
So, again, the value of delaying should be in learning new ways to modularize away the decision. Learning more about the risk/opportunity trade-off of not modularizing away the decision is second best.

In a sense, software development is all about decisions. Yet, the concept is completely absent from programming and modeling languages, and not particularly explicit in most design methods as well.
In the Physics of Software I'm trying to give Decisions a central role. Decisions are gateways to different forcefields. Conversely, we shape the forcefield by making decisions. Decisions live in the Decision Space, and software evolution is basically a process of moving our software to another position in the Decision Space. Decisions are also a key ingredient to link software design and software economics. I have many interesting ideas here, mostly based on real option theories, but that's another story.

Next time: tangling.